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National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC)

National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC)

Climate change is the greatest challenge humankind has ever had to deal with. The Earth’s surface temperature has increased by 1.18°C since the late 19th Century.1 It is predominantly caused by human activities releasing greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere.2 These gases trap heat close to our planet and accelerate global warming.3

In response, various countries have proposed a national action plan on climate change. 

India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC)

Perhaps the best known national action plan on climate change was published by India in 2008.4 The aim of their NAPCC was to create awareness for the threat posed by climate change and outline steps to tackle the issue.5 It forms a multi-pronged, long-term and integrated approach to the challenges posed by climate change.6  

Climate change is particularly pressing for India. Due to its huge population and high levels of poverty and inequality, the sub-continent stands to be one of the worst affected.7 Rapid changes in temperature would increase the stress on India’s natural ecosystems, agriculture and freshwater resources.8 Their NAPCC, therefore, intends to simultaneously advance India’s development whilst meeting climate change targets.9

What is the core of India’s NAPCC?

The core of India’s NAPCC is formed of eight national missions10:

  • National Solar Mission
  • National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency
  • National Mission on Sustainable Habitat
  • National Water Mission
  • National Mission for Sustaining Himalayan Ecosystem
  • Green India Mission
  • National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture
  • National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change

The first of these is the National Solar Mission. It aims to promote the use of solar energy for power generation.11 Ultimately, the goal is to make solar energy competitive with traditional fossil fuel-based energies.12 A transition away from greenhouse gas-emitting sources of energy is central to India, reducing its contribution to global warming.

The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency (NMEEE) involves reducing energy consumption for large energy-consuming industries.13 Similarly, the third National Mission on Sustainable Habitat promotes energy efficiency in urban planning.14 It places greater emphasis on urban waste management and recycling.15 It also encourages the purchasing of efficient vehicles and incentivising the use of public transport.16 All of these would help to decrease India’s CO2 emissions.

India’s National Water Mission (NWM) addresses the risk of drought as a result of rising temperatures.17 At its heart is a 20 per cent improvement in water use efficiency.18 Their National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem (NMSHE) has a similar aim. It intends to both prevent the Himalayan glaciers from melting and protect biodiversity in the mountain range.19 The Himalayas are particularly vulnerable to climate change, and its native species are under increasing pressure as a result.20 The world’s tallest mountains are also the source of the Yangtze, Ganges, Indus and Mekong rivers.21 Over one billion people rely on the Himalayas as a source of water, making its preservation of critical importance.22

Do the missions cover deforestation and agriculture?

The Green India Mission is the sixth of India’s eight NAPCC missions. Its targets include afforesting six million hectares of degraded forest.23 Expanding forest cover from 23 to 33 per cent of India’s landmass is another objective.24 Trees are fundamental in the fight against climate change. They absorb CO2 from the atmosphere and can sequester it for centuries.25 Moreover, they are home to complex and diverse ecosystems and sustain a significant proportion of the planet’s biodiversity.26

In order to support India’s agriculture, the NAPCC includes a National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA).27 As its name suggests, its focus is on developing climate-resilient crops and agricultural practices and expanding weather insurance mechanisms.28

The eighth and final mission is India’s National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change. Its purpose is to better understand climate science. It “envisions a new Climate Science Research Fund, improved climate modelling, and increased international collaboration” to this end.29

Sources

  1. NASA (2018). Climate Change Evidence: How Do We Know? [online] Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Available at: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/.
  2. NASA (2018). Climate Change Evidence: How Do We Know? [online] Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Available at: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/.
  3. NASA (2019). What is the greenhouse effect? – Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. [online] Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. Available at: https://climate.nasa.gov/faq/19/what-is-the-greenhouse-effect/.
  4. DelhiOctober 25, I.T.W.D.N., October 26, 2018UPDATED: and Ist, 2018 11:42 (n.d.). 8 govt missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) designed to heal India. [online] India Today. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/8-missions-govt-napcc-1375346-2018-10-25 [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  5. DelhiOctober 25, I.T.W.D.N., October 26, 2018UPDATED: and Ist, 2018 11:42 (n.d.). 8 govt missions under National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) designed to heal India. [online] India Today. Available at: https://www.indiatoday.in/education-today/gk-current-affairs/story/8-missions-govt-napcc-1375346-2018-10-25 [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  6. www.preventionweb.net. (n.d.). India: National action plan on climate change (NAPCC) – National Policy, Plans & Statements – India – Asia – Countries & Regions – PreventionWeb.net. [online] Available at: https://www.preventionweb.net/english/policies/v.php?id=28137&cid=79 [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  7. Why India needs to worry about climate change. (2018). BBC News. [online] 25 Oct. Available at: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-india-45949323.
  8. Mongabay-India. (2020). Protect India’s forests and urban green spaces, says India’s climate change report. [online] Available at: https://india.mongabay.com/2020/06/protect-indias-forests-and-urban-green-spaces-says-indias-climate-change-report/#:~:text=India [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  9. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/ [Accessed 10 Jun. 2019].
  10. www.preventionweb.net. (n.d.). India: National action plan on climate change (NAPCC) – National Policy, Plans & Statements – India – Asia – Countries & Regions – PreventionWeb.net. [online] Available at: https://www.preventionweb.net/english/policies/v.php?id=28137&cid=79.
  11. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  12. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  13. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  14. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  15. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  16. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  17. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  18. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  19. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  20. Panda.org. (2011). Climate Change. [online] Available at: https://wwf.panda.org/discover/knowledge_hub/where_we_work/eastern_himalaya/threats/climate/?#:~:text=The%20Himalayas%20is%20one%20of [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  21. Panda.org. (2011). Climate Change. [online] Available at: https://wwf.panda.org/discover/knowledge_hub/where_we_work/eastern_himalaya/threats/climate/?#:~:text=The%20Himalayas%20is%20one%20of [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  22. Panda.org. (2011). Climate Change. [online] Available at: https://wwf.panda.org/discover/knowledge_hub/where_we_work/eastern_himalaya/threats/climate/?#:~:text=The%20Himalayas%20is%20one%20of [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  23. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  24. Pandve, H. (2009). India′s National Action Plan on Climate Change. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, [online] 13(1), p.17. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2822162/.
  25. Dean, A. (2018). How does deforestation contribute to climate change? – Climate Council. [online] Climate Council. Available at: https://www.climatecouncil.org.au/deforestation/.
  26. World Wildlife Fund. (2010). Deforestation and Forest Degradation | Threats | WWF. [online] Available at: https://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/deforestation-and-forest-degradation.
  27. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  28. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].
  29. www.climateaction.org. (n.d.). Summary: India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change – Climate Action. [online] Available at: https://www.climateaction.org/news/summary_indias_national_action_plan_on_climate_change [Accessed 5 Feb. 2021].

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